17 Best Anti Aging Supplements (2022)

What are the best anti-aging supplements? There are countless anti-aging supplements out there. However, most of them are based on outdated science, not supported by well-conducted scientific studies or not scientifically proven, focus on aging process that are less relevant, contain doses that are too low, and are not verified in humans.

Before you dive deeper into the subject of anti-aging supplements, you may need to understand the weakness of conventional medicine and why most doctors do not have much to offer in the anti-aging space. The focus of allopathic medicine or so called modern medicine involves the use of drugs and surgery to treat a disease reactively. Allopathic medicine or conventional medicine may not recognize aging as a disease and therefore receives very little training or experience in dealing with aging as a disease.

In this article, we will explore research regarding anti-aging supplements and geroprotectors.


Most “anti-aging” supplements that many popular websites and books recommend do not slow aging. Probably the biggest problem is that most supplements are based on outdated ideas about aging, such as the over-simplified idea that aging is mainly driven by oxidative damage, caused by free radicals which antioxidants can neutralize. Many touted “anti-aging” supplements are antioxidants, like vitamin A, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10, lipoic acid and so on. However, most antioxidants don’t slow down aging. 

best anti aging supplement

Unfortunately, large studies, sometimes even with hundreds of thousands of participants, have shown that antioxidants do not extend lifespan (R,R,R).

Some antioxidants can even accelerate aging, like lipoic acid or vitamin A and vitamin E or increase the risk of cancer (R).

We know now that aging is a far more complex process than just oxidative damage. There are many other and more important reasons why we age, like epigenetic dysregulation, protein accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and so on.

Image credit: Longevity.technology

Which are some examples of these popular “anti-aging supplements” that in fact will do little to slow down aging? Vitamin A, vitamin E, co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10), alpha lipoic acid, copper, and potassium are not going to slow down aging.

They can be useful if you have deficiencies in these vitamins or minerals, but taking additional amounts of these substances is not going to address aging at its root causes.

Luckily, there are far better, more science-based anti-aging supplements. We have compiled a list below. Note that this list is not exhaustive, and many other supplements may also offer anti-aging effects.

Methodology: The selection or short-listing of the list below is based on the available scientific evidence retrieved from scientific database such as PubMed and scientific search engine such as Google Scholar.

Here are the best supplements with anti-aging properties. Not all the supplements below are required. You are advised to consult with your trusted medical provider before taking these supplements.

1. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN)

Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is needed to make NAD+.

NAD+ is a very important substance in the cells. It provides energy for cells and is also a cofactor for proteins that repair and maintain our epigenome and our DNA.

The epigenome is the intricate machinery that surrounds the DNA and that determines which genes are active. During aging, the epigenome becomes more and more dysregulated.

NMN also improves the functioning of our mitochondria, the power plants of our cells.

NMN improves metabolism and reduces inflammation.

The older we get, the less NAD+ is present in our cells. Taking in NMN can increase NAD+ levels.

Various studies show that NMN has beneficial effects on aging diseases and symptoms (R,R,R,R).

For example, long term administration of NMN mitigated age-associated decline in mice: NMN reduced the typical age-associated increase in body weight, improved energy metabolism, improved lipids in the blood and insulin sensitivity and ameliorated eye function (R).

NMN can also improve aging-related decline in fertility (R), improve bone health (R) and vascular health (R,R,R).


2. Calcium Alpha-KetoGlutarate (AKG) 

Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a small molecule naturally present in our body. During aging, levels of AKG decline.

Alpha-ketoglutarate is used by the mitochondria, which convert this substance into energy, but alpha-ketoglutarate has various other functions in the body.

Numerous studies show that alpha-ketoglutarate can extend lifespan in various organisms. AKG extended lifespan in C elegans worms (R) and fruit flies (R,R,R) and mice.

C elegans fed AKG (red) live longer than the control group (black). Source: Chin et al, Nature.
A study in mice, conducted at the Buck Institute, one of the world-leading aging research institutes, found that alpha-ketoglutarate extended lifespan in old mice by 12 percent (R).

Very interestingly, alpha-ketoglutarate extended health span by an impressive 41 percent: the mice didn’t only live longer, they stayed healthier and disease-free for considerably longer.

Alpha-ketoglutarate also siginificantly reduced hair graying in elderly animals (R).

How alpha-ketoglutarate extends lifespan? Alpha-ketoglutarate impacts the aging process in various ways.

First, alpha-ketoglutarate has epigenetic effects. The epigenome is the intricate molecular machinery surrounding the DNA that decides which genes are switched on or off. The older we get, the more the epigenome becomes dysregulated: some genes that should be silent are switched on, and some genes that should be active (like cancer protection genes) are switched off. This epigenetic dysregulation is one of the reasons why we age.

An important enzyme that regulates the epigenome is TET (ten eleven translocation). This enzyme can reprogram the epigenome to a more youthful state. TET needs alpha-ketoglutarate to function properly. TET also needs vitamin C to carry out its work properly.

Alpha-ketoglutarate is also at the nexus of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The older we get, the less flexible cells become at switching between carbohydrates and amino acids to produce energy. Alpha-ketoglutarate, however, can help cells to maintain this metabolic flexibility for longer.

Alpha-ketoglutarate also improves mitochondrial health, which makes sense, given this substance also an energy source for the mitochondria. Alpha-ketoglutarate activates AMPK, an important metabolic and longevity switch (R). 

Besides that, we see that alpha-ketoglutarate can help the body to detoxify: alpha-ketoglutarate helps the body to get rid of ammonia. Ammonia is a waste product from the protein metabolism that tends to accumulate in the body (the more protein you eat, the more ammonium you produce). When we get older, the body has more difficulty getting rid of the ammonia. Too much ammonia is toxic, and alpha-ketoglutarate helps to detoxify the body from ammonium.

Also, given alpha-ketoglutarate serves as a fuel for the mitochondria, it could provide more energy and endurance. That is why athletes and bodybuilders have been taking alpha-ketoglutarate for decades. However, some studies show that alpha-ketoglutarate does not provide substantially extra energy (R). In these studies, however, the arginine-alpha-ketoglutarate form is taken, while ideally, the AKG form without arginine, but with calcium is taken, at least for longevity purposes.

Alpha-ketoglutarate also plays a role in maintaining stem cell health (R), and in bone and gut metabolism (R).

Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate is also involved in collagen production, can reduce fibrosis, and can thus play a role in maintaining healthy, youthful skin (R,R).

Regular alpha-ketoglutarate vs calcium alpha-ketoglutarate

Most alpha-ketoglutarate supplements contain plain alpha-ketoglutarate.

However, scientists believe that the calcium form of alpha-ketoglutarate, namely calcium alpha-ketoglutarate (calcium AKG or CAKG), is significantly better than regular alpha-ketoglutarate, in which the alpha ketoglutarate molecule is not linked to a calcium atom.

Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate can have additional beneficial effects compared to alpha-ketoglutarate. One reason for this is that calcium alpha-ketoglutarate is more slowly absorbed in the gut and released into the bloodstream, so it can work for longer in the body. This makes sense, given alpha-ketoglutarate is an important metabolite and ideally it is present in our body at sufficiently high levels for as long as possible.

Most supplements contain only alpha-ketoglutarate, not calcium alpha-ketoglutarate. Also, their dose of alpha-ketoglutarate is often too low.

Alpha-ketoglutarate ticks all the boxes of an ideal longevity molecule: there is substantial scientific evidence showing it extends lifespan in various model organisms (C elegans, fruit flies and mice).

Alpha-ketoglutarate works beneficially on various aging mechanisms (such as epigenetic and mitochondrial dysfunction).

It is a natural substance that occurs in our body, but of which the levels decrease as we get older.

It has been taken by humans for many decades with the only significant side effects seeming to be increased lifespan and healthspan.

3. Fisetin

Fisetin is a naturally occurring substance found in fruits and vegetables, such as strawberries, apples, grapes, onions, and cucumbers. Fisetin is also a molecular cousin to quercetin.

Fisetin is a flavonoid. Flavonoids are substances that give fruits and vegetables their bright colors (like yellow, orange and blue) and play a major role in conferring the health benefits that we get from eating more vegetables and fruits.

Fisetin is probably most known for its impact on senescent cells: studies showed that this substance can reduce the accumulation of senescent cells (R). Fisetin is a senolytic, a compound that can clear away senescent cells.

Senescent cells accumulate everywhere in the body during aging. Senescent cells were previously normal cells that became too damaged. Normally, when a cell is too damaged, it kills itself, but senescent cells don’t do that.

Instead of dying, they keep lingering around in the body.

Senescent cells secrete all kinds of substances that damage the healthy surrounding cells, like inflammatory substances (cytokines and chemokines), substances that break down the glue that holds the cells together (matrix metalloproteinases), and growth factors that accelerate aging (R). Not only do senescent cells damage healthy surrounding cells, but they also damage stem cells, which are the foundational cells that create new cells, which build up and repair our organs and tissues.

Reducing the senescent cell burden can lead to reduced inflammaging (low-grade inflammation that increases during aging) and enhanced function of stem cells.

Substances that can eliminate senescent cells are called “senolytics”. Fisetin is a well-studied senolytic substance.

Fisetin versus quercetin

Besides fisetin, another senolytic is quercetin. Quercetin and fisetin look very similar. However, fisetin seems to be the most potent and safest of natural senolytics (R):


Fisetin is far better in destroying senescent cells (red bar) than other substances, such as quercetin or curcumin or EGCG. Source image: Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan. EBioMedicine, 2018

The conclusion of the researchers was the following:

“Fisetin had the most potent senotherapeutic effects in several cell types in vitro and showed strong anti-geronic effects in vivo”.

Lifespan extension effects of fisetin

Scientists demonstrated that fisetin can extend median and maximum lifespan in mice, even when taken late in a mouse’s life (equivalent to 50 or 60 years old for a human) (R):

Fisetin extends lifespan (red graph) versus control group (black graph) in mice. Source image: Fisetin is a senotherapeutic that extends health and lifespan. EBioMedicine, 2018

More than a senolytic: other anti-aging effects of fisetin

Fisetin has many other beneficial effects on the aging process besides eliminating senescent cells.

For example, fisetin inhibits the mTOR pathway (R), which plays an important role in aging and is where many of the health benefits behind fasting are derived. Fisetin can also reduce oxidative stress (R).

Fisetin can reduce inflammaging (aging-related low-grade inflammation) by inhibiting pro-inflammatory enzymes and substances, like lipoxygenases and NF-kB (R,R).

Interestingly, fisetin can also have various beneficial effects on the skin. For example, fisetin can reduce the formation of skin wrinkles and appearance of skin aging.

One way it can achieve this is by reducing the amount of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (R,R). MMPs are enzymes that break down the extracellular matrix that surrounds our cells. The extracellular matrix consists of collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), and many other molecules that glue the cells together, so that they can firm tissues (like the skin) and organs. An overactivity or overproduction of matrix metalloproteinases plays a role in wrinkle formation.

Fisetin also has a positive impact on brain functioning and brain aging (R). For example, fisetin can improve memory formation in mice (R,R).

4. Pterostilbene

Some of the biggest hurdles for reaping the benefits of resveratrol in humans appear to be its limited bioavailability and rapid elimination from the body. But those hurdles might be overcome by a compound that has more recently gained some notice.

About 10 years after the discovery that resveratrol activated a longevity gene, researchers began to take interest in its molecular cousin, pterostilbene. Although it is present in a higher concentration in blueberries than in red wine, pterostilbene is nearly identical in chemical structure to resveratrol.

The first human-safety study of pterostilbene was published in 2013, and investigations have intensified since then. Pterostilbene is now championed as a more potent form of resveratrol. It’s said to offer all of the previously known benefits of resveratrol but with superior bioavailability. Are these claims true? 

Randomized, controlled trials have shown that resveratrol supplementation supports healthy weight management, blood-sugar metabolism, cardiovascular function, mood, healthy inflammatory balance and oxidative stress. Resveratrol’s health benefits have also been shown in many other studies, and even meta-analyses.

When it comes to pterostilbene, the evidence is much sparser. Aside from a safety study published in 2013, there have been very few trials conducted in humans. There was one study, conducted at the University of Mississippi in 80 adults, which found that pterostilbene supported healthy blood pressure and lipid metabolism.

The vast majority of research on pterostilbene is in the experimental and preclinical phase. In a mouse model (animal Study), pterostilbene performs better than resveratrol (R) in protection against age-related disease.

Pterostilbene has been associated with longer lifespans (R,R), and could reduce various aging symptoms and mitigate aging-related diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (R,R,R).

Researchers have found that pterostilbene supports many of the same cellular pathways as resveratrol—including supporting antioxidant defenses and modulating pathways involved in healthy inflammatory balance, apoptosis, and autophagy. Most experts agree that the molecular mechanisms of pterostilbene should be considered equivalent to those of resveratrol.

Pterostilbene vs Resveratrol

PubMed has indexed more than 12,000 research studies on resveratrol, but only 500 on pterostilbene. However, the sheer number of scientific studies on a compound doesn’t necessarily mean the compound is superior. It’s also important to note that pterostilbene research lags about 10 years behind resveratrol research.

The slight difference in molecular structure between resveratrol and pterostilbene provides a sound rationale for the superiority of pterostilbene. Pterostilbene should be more stable and bioavailable in theory, and preclinical studies so far validate the assumption.

5. Resveratrol

Resveratrol is a polyphenol in grapes, berries, peanuts, and red wine that may promote longevity by activating certain genes called sirtuins. It has been shown to increase the lifespan of fruit flies, yeasts, and nematodes (Source).

It displays powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties in clinical trials. Resveratrol also enhances sirtuin function (R).

Nearly two decades ago, it was discovered that resveratrol slowed the process of cellular aging in yeast. In 2003, Harvard Medical School Professor David Sinclair, PhD, found that resveratrol activated a longevity gene called SIRT1 and the resultant class of sirtuin proteins.

Then, the same mechanism was studied and found to be true in mice. Investigations into resveratrol then turned toward its effects on human health. Resveratrol was found to support cardiovascular health, antioxidant defenses, glucose metabolism, healthy inflammatory balance, and more. As results of these reported studies, people became more interested in drinking resveratrol-rich red wine and taking resveratrol supplements.

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6. Vitamin D3 and K2

Vitamin D can extend lifespan. Higher levels of vitamin D are associated with less risk of heart disease, auto-immune diseases, improved brain health and a better functioning immune system.

Many governments advise 400 to 800 IU of vitamin D per day, while many vitamin D researchers claim you need at least 2000 to 4000 units per day.

We would recommend to take at least 2000 units per day. The risk of excess accumulation of vitamin D is negligible with this amount. Make sure it’s vitamin D3, and not vitamin D2 – the vitamin D3 variant works better.

“We [in the medical community] are beginning to realize the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D,” says Amanda Frick, a licensed naturopathic doctor and acupuncturist in Santa Monica, California. It builds bone, boosts immunity, guards against chronic ailments, and is responsible for increasing absorption of calcium and magnesium. If you’re still not sold on vitamin D as one of the anti-aging supplements to add to your regimen, Frick says it can also assist with weight loss when combined with lifestyle intervention.

Theoretically, we should get enough vitamin D through our diet and from the sun, but for many of us, that’s not the case. In the United States, 35% of adults and 61% of people over the age of 65 are deficient in vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of osteoporosis, weakness, and bone fractures in the elderly, among other things. Recent studies also show a link between vitamin D deficiency and cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer (Sizar, 2020).

Some studies have shown links between vitamin D supplements and lower blood pressure, decreased symptoms of depression, better cognitive function, and stronger muscles (Nair, 2012).

Vitamin D ensures that your blood levels of calcium are high enough to meet your body’s demands. However, vitamin D does not fully control where the calcium in your body ends up. That’s where vitamin K steps in. Vitamin K2 supplements have been proven to be more effective than vitamin K1. That's why most of the top vitamin D supplement brands do combine their vitamin D3 with K2.

7. Molecular Hydrogen

Molecular hydrogen is the smallest anti-oxidant. The ability of molecular hydrogen (H2) to protect the DNA and the mitochondria from oxidative damage may have beneficial effects on chronic diseases and cancer. But perhaps it could help slow down or reverse the aging process itself. A couple of cellular studies give us some interesting clues [R, R].

It was already discovered that hydrogen can prolong the life of stem cells by reducing oxidative stress [R].

A hydrogen-rich environment reduced both oxidative stress and aging in cells. Some scientists think
that drinking hydrogen water could increase longevity in humans (Circ J. 2016).

8. Omega-3 fatty acids – with low TOTOX values

Omega-3 fatty acids reduce inflammation, enable the immune system to carry out its tasks, and help the brain and eyes to function properly.

Many governments recommend eating omega-3 containing fatty fish, two times per week. But that is often not enough. Ideally, people would need to eat fatty fish four times per week, while also supplementing with omega-3 fatty acids, at least 1,000 mg of pure omega-3 (DHA and EPA) per day.

Make sure you buy high-quality omega-3 fatty acid supplements, meaning that the omega-3 fatty acids are pure and have not oxidized much (having low “TOTOX” value).

TOTOX value stands for total oxidation value. The omega 3 fatty acids EPA and DHA from fish oil are highly sensitive to oxidation. This means that they are rapidly affected by contact with oxygen. Oxidised fatty acids are not beneficial to our health. For this reason, a good fish oil supplement has a low TOTOX value. The maximum TOTOX value is set at 26 by the Global Organization for EPA and DHA omega-3.

9. Glycine

Glycine is an amino acid that occurs naturally in our body. When we age, glycine levels decline.

Low glycine levels also have been associated with various aging-related diseases like cardiovascular disease and with type 2 diabetes.

Glycine extends lifespan in different species (R,R,R,R).

Glycine has many functions in the body. It improves the epigenome (the machinery that determines which genes are switched on or off, a process that goes increasingly awry when we get older). Glycine especially improves the epigenome of mitochondria, the power plants of our cells (R).

Glycine also functions as a chaperone. Chaperones are small molecules that gently stick to and protect the proteins. That is important, because one of the reasons why we age is due to proteins accumulating everywhere inside and outside our cells, eventually hampering the proper functioning of our cells.

Glycine also reduces inflammation (R) and has many other beneficial effects, especially for the cardiovascular system. People with higher glycine levels in the blood had less risk of a heart attack (R), and glycine can protect the blood vessels (R).

10. Collagen

Collagen is promoted as a fountain of youth for its potential to reduce the appearance of skin aging.

It’s an integral component of your skin that helps maintain skin structure. As you age, collagen production slows, leading to collagen loss in the skin that accelerates signs of aging like wrinkles.

Some research suggests that supplementing with collagen may reduce signs of aging, including wrinkles and dry skin.

For example, a 2019 study in 72 women demonstrated that taking a supplement that contained 2.5 grams of collagen — along with several other ingredients, including biotin — per day for 12 weeks significantly improved skin hydration, roughness, and elasticity (R).

Another study in 114 women found that treatment with 2.5 grams of collagen peptides for 8 weeks significantly reduced eye wrinkles and increased collagen levels in the skin (R).

Though these results are promising, keep in mind that many collagen studies are funded by companies that manufacture collagen products, which may influence study results.

Many types of collagen supplements are on the market, including powders and capsules.

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11. Crocin (Saffron)

Crocin is a yellow carotenoid pigment in saffron, a popular, pricey spice that’s commonly used in Indian and Spanish cuisine.

Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world — with 1 pound (450 grams) costing between 500 and 5,000 U.S. dollars. Saffron contains an impressive variety of plant compounds that act as antioxidants — molecules that protect your cells against free radicals and oxidative stress.

Human and animal studies have shown that crocin offers many health benefits, including anticancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-anxiety, and antidiabetic effects (R).

Aside from the properties listed above, crocin has been researched for its potential to act as an anti-aging compound and protect against age-related mental decline (Trusted Source).

Test-tube and rodent studies have demonstrated that crocin helps prevent age-related nerve damage by inhibiting the production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are compounds that contribute to the aging process (Trusted SourceTrusted Source).

Crocin has also been shown to help prevent aging in human skin cells by reducing inflammation and protecting against UV-light-induced cellular damage (Trusted SourceTrusted Source).

Given that saffron is the most expensive spice in the world, a more cost-effective way to boost your crocin intake is by taking a concentrated saffron supplement.

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12. NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine)

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid. It’s considered semi-essential because your body can produce it from other amino acids, namely methionine and serine. It becomes essential only when the dietary intake of methionine and serine is low.

Cysteine is found in most high-protein foods, such as chicken, turkey, yogurt, cheese, eggs, sunflower seeds and legumes.

N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is a supplement form of cysteine.

Consuming adequate cysteine and NAC is important for a variety of health reasons — including replenishing the most powerful antioxidant in your body, glutathione. These amino acids also help with chronic respiratory conditions, fertility and brain health.

NAC is valued primarily for its role in antioxidant production. Along with two other amino acids — glutamine and glycine — NAC is needed to make and replenish glutathione.

Glutathione is one of the body’s most important antioxidants, which helps neutralize free radicals that can damage cells and tissues in your body.

It’s essential for immune health and fighting cellular damage. Some researchers believe it may even contribute to longevity (Trusted Source).

Its antioxidant properties are also important for combatting numerous other ailments caused by oxidative stress, such as heart disease, infertility and some psychiatric conditions (Trusted Source).

NAC is likely safe for adults when provided as a prescription medication.

However, high amounts may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation (Trusted Source).

When inhaled, it can cause swelling in the mouth, runny nose, drowsiness and chest tightness.

People with bleeding disorders or taking blood thinning medications should not take NAC, as it may slow blood clotting (Trusted Source).

NAC has an unpleasant smell that makes it hard to consume. If you choose to take it, consult with your doctor first.

13. CoQ10 

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Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an antioxidant that your body produces. It plays essential roles in energy production and protects against cellular damage (Trusted Source).

Research suggests that levels of CoQ10 decline as you age, and supplementing with it has been shown to improve certain aspects of health in older individuals.

For example, a study in 443 older adults demonstrated that supplementing with CoQ10 and selenium over 4 years improved their overall quality of life, reduced hospital visits, and slowed the deterioration of physical and mental performance (Trusted Source).

CoQ10 supplements help reduce oxidative stress, a condition characterized by an accumulation of free radicals and other reactive molecules that accelerates the aging process and onset of age-related disease (Trusted SourceTrusted Source).

Though CoQ10 shows promise as an anti-aging supplement, more evidence is needed before it can be recommended as a natural way to delay aging.

Be sure to consult a trusted healthcare professional before giving it a try.

14. Curcumin (Turmeric)

Curcumin — the main active compound in turmeric — has been shown to possess powerful anti-aging properties, which are attributed to its potent antioxidant potential.

Cellular senescence occurs when cells stop dividing. As you age, senescent cells accumulate, which is believed to accelerate aging and disease progression (Trusted SourceTrusted Source).

Research demonstrates that curcumin activates certain proteins, including sirtuins and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which helps delay cellular senescence and promotes longevity (Trusted SourceTrusted Source).

Plus, curcumin has been shown to combat cellular damage and significantly increase the lifespan of fruit flies, roundworms, and mice. This compound has been shown to postpone age-related disease and alleviate age-related symptoms as well (Trusted SourceTrusted Source).

This may be why turmeric intake has been associated with a reduced risk of age-related mental decline in humans (Trusted Source).

You can increase your curcumin intake by using turmeric in recipes or taking curcumin supplements.

Buy on Amazon > Turmeric (curcumin) supplement

15. EGCG (Green Tea Extract)

Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a well-known polyphenol compound concentrated in green tea. It offers impressive health benefits, with research supporting its use to reduce the risk of certain cancers, as well as other health conditions like heart disease (Trusted SourceTrusted SourceTrusted Source).

Among EGCG’s diverse array of potential health-promoting properties is its ability to promote longevity and protect against age-related disease development.

EGCG may slow aging by restoring mitochondrial function in cells and acting on pathways involved in aging, including the AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway (AMPK).

It also induces autophagy, the process by which your body removes damaged cellular material (Trusted Source).

Green tea intake has been associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality, diabetes, stroke, and heart-disease-related death. Plus, animal studies have shown that it can protect against skin aging and wrinkles caused by ultraviolet (UV) light (Trusted SourceTrusted SourceTrusted Source).

EGCG can be consumed by drinking green tea or taking concentrated supplements.

Buy on Amazon > EGCG supplement 

16. L-Citrulline 

L-citrulline is a naturally occurring amino acid found in some foods like watermelons and is also produced naturally by the body. Citrulline can promote heart health by widening your blood vessels. It can also improve your exercise performance and may play a role in muscle building (Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2017). After citrulline is consumed, some is converted to another amino acid called arginine. Arginine is converted into a molecule called nitric oxide, which causes vasodilation of blood vessels by relaxing the smooth muscle cells that constrict them (Nitric Oxide. 2015). Though research has found both arginine and citrulline to boost levels of nitric oxide (NO) in the body, most recent research—like this The Journal of Nutrition study—shows that citrulline actually delivers the most benefit. The body use arginine for a variety of functions, so it doesn’t use all of the arginine it absorbs to produce NO. Plus, unlike citrulline, higher doses of arginine have been linked to gastrointestinal problems. Because it tends to be poorly absorbed, arginine can even lead to diarrhea when consumed in large amounts.

17. Zinc

Zinc is an essential trace mineral that is critical to healthy immune function. Zinc is an important mineral for proper immune system function, brain health and skin health, among many other effects. Ideally, one takes 10 to 15 mg of zinc per day.

Zinc deficiency is common in older individuals, and causes changes in immune function that resemble those seen in immune senescence (Cabrera 2015; Maywald 2015). Immunological alterations associated with zinc deficiency include diminished thymus function, decreased antibody response to vaccines, and impaired function of phagocytic and NK cells (Haase 2009; Cabrera 2015).

In a study in healthy older volunteers, daily intake of 45 mg zinc for one year resulted in a 67% reduction versus placebo in incidence of infections. Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, an inflammatory cytokine, were also greatly reduced in those taking zinc (Prasad 2007). In a study of older individuals in nursing homes, residents with normal zinc levels had a significantly lower incidence of pneumonia compared with zinc-deficient individuals. Zinc-replete individuals also had shorter pneumonia duration and 50% lower usage of antibiotics, as well as lower all-cause mortality (Meydani 2007). A controlled clinical trial in aged individuals showed supplementation with 45 mg zinc per day for six months decreased plasma markers of inflammation, including IL-6 and C-reactive protein (Bao 2010).

Combining zinc with other important vitamins and minerals may also aid immune function. In a randomized controlled trial that enrolled 42 subjects between 55 and 75 years of age, those who took a multivitamin/mineral supplement containing 10 mg zinc and 1,000 mg vitamin C, along with other vitamins and minerals, for 12 weeks experienced fewer self-reported sick days and less severe symptoms than those who took placebo. The number of sick days decreased by nearly 65% with supplement use (Fantacone 2020).

Be careful, too much zinc can have negative effects. Also, if you take zinc supplements, make sure you take copper, given zinc inhibits the absorption of copper.

More and more studies show the importance of copper to reduce the risk of heart disease and diabetes. Copper also plays an important role in collagen production, skin health and skin appearance.

Ideally, one takes 2 mg of copper per day. 

What Causes Aging?

The human ageing process is a complex and multifactor process. We have uncovered top key mechanisms based on our research and review on the scientific literature.

1. Mitochondrial Dysfunction: During aging, mitochondria – the power plants of our cells – become dysfunctional.

2. Dysfunctional and lack of stem cells: With age, stem cells become dysfunctional or die off, leading to our tissues being less replenished & maintained.

3. Loss of Proteostasis: Over time, more and more proteins accumulate inside and outside our cells, interfering with their proper functioning.

4. Altered Cellular Communication: When we get older, our cells become increasingly exposed to a hostile environment, characterized by inflammation, senescent cells, dysfunctional stem cells, and deleterious substances.

5. Genomic Changes: During aging, our DNA becomes damaged, and telomeres become shorter and dysfunctional, especially in stem cells and fast-dividing cells.

6. Epigenetic Changes: During aging, the epigenome – the molecular machinery that regulates our genes’ activity – becomes disorganized.

7. Telomere Shortening: As we age, the ends of DNA, known as telomeres, get shorter and cannot protect DNA any longer.

8. Dysregulated Nutrient Sensing: During aging, our cells become less tuned to nutrient signals, which disrupts a cell’s ability to produce energy.

9. Cellular Senescence: Senescent cells are former healthy cells that stopped dividing and secrete substances that damage healthy surrounding cells.

10. Crosslinking: As we grow older, sugar-derived bonds, or crosslinks, are formed between the proteins that make up our tissues, making tissues more stiff.

11. Stress: A June 2022 study supports what immunologists have long suspected: A key stressor to our immune system as we age may be stress itself.

Most officially recommended daily doses are too low

You should know that the official recommended dietary allowances of vitamins and minerals, as defined by government agencies, are often just the bare minimum you need to take in to not become sick. They do not tell you what are the best amounts for a long, optimal, healthy life.

Most of these official recommendations are also based on old studies in which volunteers were deprived of a specific vitamin or mineral. Scientists then waited a while until people became sick, and then determined the minimum dose you would need to prevent this.

So these recommended daily intakes are what you need to take on a daily basis in order not to become sick after a number of months (the duration of the study). They do not tell you the ideal amounts you need to stay healthy and slow down aging for decades to come.

Take for example vitamin B12. The recommended dietary allowance is around 2.4 mcg in many countries. But that’s in fact the “minimum” amount you need to not become sick after a few months or years, getting serious complications, like anemia, fatigue or cognitive problems. This doesn’t mean this is the optimal amount for a long, healthy life.

For example, we see in studies that you need at least 20 mcg of vitamin B12 to optimally protect the DNA against DNA strand breaks – more than 8 times greater than the recommendation!

Also, many people do not take up vitamin B12 well, especially as we get older. For example, atrophic gastritis affects at least 10 to 30 percent of people older than 60, leading to malabsorption of vitamin B12. So, they would need far more vitamin B12 than advised by governments.

In fact, The Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University recommends that all people older than 50 take at least 100 to 400 ug/day of supplemental vitamin B12 (R). That’s considerably more than the 2.4 mcg many governments advise.

It’s interesting to see that many foods rich in vitamin B12 (clams, mussels, crab, and fish like mackerel and salmon) are water-borne foods. Scientists speculate that people evolved for tens of thousands of years living close to shorelines and rivers and lakes and consumed high amounts of sea food and thus vitamin B12 (R), probably reaching daily intake levels far more than a meagre 2.4 mcg per day.

These are just a few examples demonstrating that yes, we need to take supplements for optimal aging. And this for the rest of our lives, and even more when we are older and suffer from age-related malabsorption issues and changes that hinder us to properly use these important vitamins and minerals.

Conclusion

Certain supplements may help slow the aging process and promote a long, healthy life.

While some studies suggest that taking certain supplements may help slow aging, the best way to promote longevity and overall health is to engage in healthy practices like consuming a nutritious diet, engaging in regular exercise, and reducing stress.

A good anti-aging supplement is one that contains substances that are based on science and that acts on aging mechanisms. This also enables these supplements to have an additional important benefit: synergy.

After all, aging is a complex process caused by various different mechanisms, such as epigenetic dysregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and accumulation of proteins.

If you have an anti-aging supplement that only focuses on a single dimension such as “improving mitochondrial health”, you are not addressing other important aging mechanisms, like epigenetic dysregulation or accumulation of proteins.

Therefore, this supplement, even if it could improve mitochondrial health, will have little impact on extending lifespan given it only tackles one facet of the aging process.

As such, it’s very important for a good anti-aging supplement to contain substances that act on different aging mechanisms in a synergistic way.

For example, alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) can maintain the epigenome and improve mitochondrial health. AKG can work together with other substances that improve mitochondrial health, like fisetin and malate, or that improve the epigenome, like NMN and glycine.

But addressing the aging epigenome and mitochondria is not enough. You also need to tackle many other aging mechanisms, like protein accumulation and DNA damage.

So the ideal anti-aging supplement contains not just one or two substances that focus on one aging mechanism (like mitochondrial health or the NAD+ metabolism), but contains many substances that act on many aging pathways, and in a synergistic way.


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Before adding a new supplement to your routine, discuss its use with your healthcare provider, especially if you have an underlying health condition or are taking medication.

Related: 

35 Ways to Live Longer (2022 Edition)

15 anti aging supplements worth buying

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