NAC vs NAD vs NR vs NMN vs Niacin: What Are the Differences?
- NAD vs NAD+
- NAD+ for Anti Aging
- NAD+ Helps Restore Age-Related Muscle Deterioration
- NAD and Resveratrol
- Naturally Boosting NAD Levels
- NAD Supplements
- Niacin (NA)
- NAC vs NMN
- Gluthatione vs NAC
- NAC vs Niacin
- NR vs NMN
- Can you take NR and NMN together?
- Niacin vs NR vs NMN
- Stability and Storage of NMN and NR
- Related Articles
Scientific research has highlighted conditions such as neurodegenerative diseases, muscle disorders, metabolic disorders and chronic conditions (such as long COVID) which are all linked with NAD+ depletion.
The problem is that NAD+ is a large molecule. If you take it orally, it gets broken down in the gut.
However, intravenous NAD+ causes sudden very high peaks of NAD+ in the blood. Too much NAD+ can perhaps also not be a good thing, for example causing too much reductive stress (R).
NAD vs NAD+: What's the Difference?If you have done any research on aging and health recently, you have likely stumbled across the so-called anti-aging molecule, NAD. You have probably also seen it called NAD+ and maybe even as NADH. So, what is the difference, if there is any?
The short answer is that there is a difference, at least between NAD and NADH. Generally speaking, when NAD is used, NAD is being talked about generally. And often when using “NAD” it is referring to the specific chemical forms of NAD, NAD+ and NADH, interchangeably.
NAD exists in two forms: NAD+ and NADH. Its ability to switch between these two forms is what allows NAD to carry out its main function—carrying electrons from one reaction to another in the process of metabolism and energy production. Therefore, NAD is more of a collective term to describe two sides of the same coin.
As an electron carrier, NAD+ and NADH help to convert the nutrients in your food into a form of energy your cells can use.
NAD+ for Anti Aging
Research suggests it may be possible to reverse mitochondrial decay with dietary supplements that increase cellular levels of a molecule called NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide).
NAD is a linchpin of energy metabolism, among other roles, and its diminishing level with age has been implicated in mitochondrial deterioration. Supplements containing nicotinamide riboside, or NR, a precursor to NAD that's found in trace amounts in milk, might be able to boost NAD levels. In support of that idea, half a dozen Nobel laureates and other prominent scientists are working with two small companies offering NR supplements.
The NAD story took off toward the end of 2013 with a high-profile paper by Harvard's David Sinclair and colleagues. Sinclair, recall, achieved fame in the mid-2000s for research on yeast and mice that suggested the red wine ingredient resveratrol mimics anti-aging effects of calorie restriction. This time his lab made headlines by reporting that the mitochondria in muscles of elderly mice were restored to a youthful state after just a week of injections with NMN (nicotinamide mononucleotide), a molecule that naturally occurs in cells and, like NR, boosts levels of NAD.
NAD+ Helps Restore Age-Related Muscle Deterioration
Their study, published in the journal Cell Reports, showed that protein aggregates (amyloid) could be blocked by boosting the levels of NAD+, a biomolecule that is also essential for maintaining mitochondrial function.
NAD and ResveratrolNAD boosters might work synergistically with supplements like resveratrol to help reinvigorate mitochondria and ward off diseases of aging. Elysium is banking on this potential synergy—its NR-containing supplement includes a resveratrol-like substance called pterostilbene (pronounced tero-STILL-bean), which is found in blueberries and grapes.
While resveratrol has hogged the anti-aging spotlight over the past decade, unsung researchers in places like Oxford, Miss., have quietly shown that pterostilbene is a kind of extra-potent version of resveratrol. The pterostilbene molecule is nearly identical to resveratrol's except for a couple of differences that make it more "bioavailable" (animal studies indicate that about four times as much ingested pterostilbene gets into the bloodstream as resveratrol). Test-tube and rodent studies also suggest that pterostilbene is more potent than resveratrol when it comes to improving brain function, warding off various kinds of cancer and preventing heart disease.
How excited should we be about all this? If I were a middle-aged mouse, I'd be ready to spend some of the nickels and dimes I'd dragged off the sidewalk to try NR supplements. Even before Sinclair's paper, researchers had shown in 2012 that when given doses of NR, mice on high-fat diets gained 60 percent less weight than they did on the same diets without NR. Further, none of the mice on NR showed signs of diabetes, and their energy levels improved. The scientists reportedly characterized NR's effects on metabolism as "nothing short of astonishing."
But the paucity of human data gives me pause. Nobel laureates notwithstanding, I plan to wait until more is known before jumping up from the supper table to run out for some NR. Besides, it probably won’t be long before more data come out given the growing buzz about NAD.
Read more: https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/guest-blog/beyond-resveratrol-the-anti-aging-nad-fad/
NAC (N-Acetyl Cysteine)
Many COVID-19 patients experience serious blood clots, and NAC counteracts hypercoagulation, as it has both anticoagulant and platelet-inhibiting properties.
Niacin (NA)Niacin or the original vitamin B3 is another precursor to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). There are three main forms of vitamin B3, which are dietary precursors to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). These are nicotinamide riboside (NR), nicotinic acid and nicotinamide; collectively referred to as vitamin B3.
NR (Nicotinamide Riboside)
“Therefore, administration of niacin or niacinamide is unlikely to be widely adopted for maintaining health and function with aging,” researchers wrote in Nature Communications.
Within your body, nicotinamide riboside is converted into NAD+, a helper molecule that exists inside each of your cells and supports many aspects of healthy aging.
Nicotinamide riboside supplements — such as niagen — have quickly become popular because they appear to be especially effective at raising NAD+ levels (Source). Nicotinamide riboside is also found in trace amounts in cows’ milk, yeast and beer (Source).
NAC vs NAD
NAC vs Niacin / Is NAC different from Niacin?
NR vs NMN
NR vs NMN? I used each for 90 days & both were effective in getting my intracellular NAD levels to age 16 equivalent, 31 yr age reversal as semi-indirect bioage marker. Recent levels 54.6μM via Jinfiniti test. Full protocol in bio.♬ original sound - Bryan Johnson
Supplement manufacturer ChromaDex alleges that testing has revealed that more than half of NMN anti aging supplements being sold on Amazon contained almost none of the bioactive molecule. Source: ChromaDex NMN Report (Oct 2021)
Can you take NR and NMN together?There have been no studies on taking NMN & NR together, and it would be best to test both separately and find which one you respond better to. You may be wasting your time (and money) taking both NMN & NR together as studies show that the majority of the time, NR is turned into NMN which is then turned into NAD+.
Niacin vs NR vs NMN
NMN vs NAC
Stability and storage of NMN and NRA stability analysis demonstrates NR is stable (does not undergo degradation) for up to six hours at room temperature and seven days at two to eight degrees Celsius. Regarding stability of NMN and NR, David Sinclair, PhD, A.O. of Harvard University says, “Make sure your NR and NMN is kept in the cold. If it’s just on the shelf and it’s not in a stabilized form, then it will degrade to nicotinamide, which is something you don’t want to take high doses of because we’ve shown in my lab many years ago that nicotinamide will inhibit the sirtuins, and PARP as well, and interfere with DNA repair.”
Nicotinamide (niacinamide) vs niacin (nicotinic acid)Niacin (also known as nicotinic acid) and nicotinamide (NAM, also known as niacinamide) are all different forms of vitamin B3.
It is not recommended to take nicotinamide (NAM). Firstly, NAM is too early in the pathway that converts NAM into NAD+. The pathway is as follows:
NAM => NMN => NAD+
So NAM needs first to be converted into NMN which then builds NAD+. It’s better to take NMN, which is a direct precursor to NAD+.
Secondly, nicotinamide could actually inhibit sirtuins, the important enzymes that help to protect the DNA and the epigenome.
This is because NAD+ is converted into NAM in order to “activate” the sirtuins. If there is too much NAM present, this will hinder this conversion of NAD+ into NAM, and thus proper sirtuin functioning (R).
Niacin, another B3 vitamin, is also a less ideal way to increase NAD+ levels.
Contrary to NMN, niacin is far earlier in the pathway to create NAD+. Given niacin is so early in this pathway, and given its involvement in many other pathways, niacin can lead to more side effects.
For example, niacin supplements have been associated with side effects such as flushing (which is quite uncomfortable) and increased glucose levels, which could perhaps increase the risk of type 2 diabetes in the long term (R,R).
How can I raise my NAD levels naturally?
- Dairy Milk – research has indicated that cow’s milk is a good source of Nicotinamide Riboside (NR). A litre of fresh cow’s milk contains about 3.9µmol of NAD+.
- Fish – some varieties of fish like tuna, salmons and sardines are rich sources of NAD+ for the body.
- Mushrooms – many people like mushrooms and them as a regular food item in their regular diet. But did you know that mushrooms, especially the crimini mushrooms, also help in naturally boosting NAD levels? Yes, that’s true. So, enjoy eating the mushrooms and continue to look and younger and more youthful!
- Yeast – yeast is an ingredient which is used for making bread and other bakery products. Yeast contains Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), which is a precursor of NAD. Here’s another reason for you to enjoy your favorite pastries or buns whenever you visit the bakery! Enjoy your favorite food while boosting NAD levels at the same time.
- Green Vegetables – green vegetables contain all sorts of nutrients in them which are beneficial in a variety of ways. Recently, it has come to light that green vegetables are also a good source of NAD for the body. Some of these vegetables include peas and asparagus.
- Whole Grains – as discussed earlier, Vitamin B3 also contains Nicotinamide Riboside (NR), the precursor for NAD. However, when vegetables, food items or grains are cooked or processed, they lose their nutrition as well as the vitamin source. Therefore, it is recommended that you should also eat raw vegetables and take whole grains instead of processed foods.
- Cut Down on Alcoholic Beverages – NAD is responsible for maintaining the overall metabolic processes of the body. Alcohol tends to interfere with these processes and reduce the efficacy of NAD. Therefore, you should avoid excessive intake of alcoholic drinks since they are also not good for your health.
1. Avoid smoking. Low risk is defined as low exposure to smoking.
2. Maintain a healthy weight. Low risk is defined as a Body Mass Index in the range of 18.5 to 24.9. BMI is a ratio of weight to height that, though imperfect, offers a quick and easy assessment of weight status.
3. Exercise regularly. Low risk is defined as moderate- or vigorous-intensity exercise for 30 or more minutes a day.
4. Consume moderate amounts of alcohol. Low risk is defined as one-half to one drink per day for women and one-half to two drinks per day for men.
5. Maintain an overall healthy diet. Low risk is defined as a diet with high intakes of vegetables, fruit, nuts, whole grains and long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, and low intakes of red and processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages, trans fat and sodium.
TRU Niagen NAD+ Booster Supplement (NMN Alternative)
- 30 count / Serving Size: 1 Capsule once a day - Servings Per Container: 30
- 90 count / Serving Size: 1 Capsule once a day - Servings Per Container: 90
- 120 count / Serving Size: 1 Capsule once a day - Servings Per Container: 120